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A discussion on different classifications of chemical reactions and its relation to AP Chemistry. Chemical reactions occur when one or more molecules change chemically. In other words, bonds break between the reactants and atoms rearrange to form new chemical bonds.
These reconfigured atoms can either be a compound or just an element. The products have different trading products on binary compound decomposes identities compared to the reactants. Common examples of chemical reactions include the burning of fuel, respiration, and the formation of rust.
We can classify chemical reactions according to the nature of the reactants or how the products are formed. In AP Chemistry, you will encounter problems that ask you to identify and predict the products of chemical reactions. In this post, we will discuss how to classify chemical reactions in detail.
In a synthesis reaction, two or more simple substances join to form more complicated products. This type of chemical reaction usually involves the trading products on binary compound decomposes of a binary compound. Binary compounds contain two different elements. For this reason, synthesis reactions are also called the direct combination reactions. The most classic example for a synthesis reaction is the formation of water by reacting hydrogen and oxygen.
Hydrogen gas burns in the presence of oxygen, which produces steam as a product, along with the release of heat. Hydrogen and oxygen are diatomic molecules, and the balanced equation for this reaction is given below. As we can see, there is only one product consisting of the two reactant elements. An example of this type is the formation of ferrous sulfide. Ferrous sulfide is used mainly in the stainless steel and alloy industries, and is formed by heating a mixture of iron and sulfur powders.
The reaction is exothermic. Photosynthesis is the process wherein plants absorb carbon dioxide to produce oxygen and glucose. In this reaction, the reactants are not elements, as in the examples above; rather, they are compounds. Another difference is that this reaction generates two products. Although there are multiple products, we can see that the elements from the reactants combine to form glucose, one of the products.
Synthesis of ammonia Haber Process. Formation of potassium chloride. Formation of table salt. Synthesis of carbon dioxide. The products are usually the constituent elements of the compounds.
There are also decomposition reactions for which the products are simpler compounds compared to the reactants. Decomposition trading products on binary compound decomposes are also called analysis reactions or breakdown reactions. In decomposition reactions, chemical bonds are broken. Compounds can easily undergo decomposition when exposed to some kind of external stress, such as humidity, heat, presence of electricity, and change in acidity. This type of reaction is useful in analytical chemistry techniques, including gravimetric analysis and mass spectrometry.
One example of a decomposition reaction is the electrolysis of water. This reaction takes place when an electric current passes through water, which results in the dissociation of water compound into diatomic molecules of oxygen and hydrogen. This is a common experiment in AP Chemistry labs. The reaction for the electrolysis of water shows that for every mole of water, one mole of hydrogen gas and half a mole of oxygen gas is produced. Metals are purified with the use of heat in a process called thermal decomposition.
It is possible to decompose any metal provided enough heat input, which sometimes results in extremely high temperatures. The product for this process will always be the elemental form of the metal and oxygen gas. When a carbonate metal decomposes, the products will be carbon dioxide and a metal oxide. Metals that are higher on the activity series will need more energy for their carbonates to decompose.
Some carbonate decomposition reactions include the following:. We encounter combustion reactions often in our daily lives. This type of reaction involves a reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer. We will only consider organic combustions, where the fuel will trading products on binary compound decomposes be a hydrocarbon and the oxidizer is oxygen.
A hydrocarbon is a compound consisting mainly of carbon C and hydrogen H. Combustion reactions are exothermic reactions, or reactions that release heat. There are two types of combustion: Complete combustion occurs when a sufficient amount of fuel is burned with enough oxygen.
This type of reaction usually occurs when there is a lack of oxygen, and the additional products contribute to pollution. In AP Chemistry, it is easy to recognize a combustion reaction. If the reactants are oxygen and a hydrocarbon, then the reaction is a combustion.
Balancing a combustion reaction is where the difficulty lies. Balancing complete combustion trading products on binary compound decomposes involves balancing the carbon and hydrogen first, then balancing the oxygen. Then, in order to balance the ten atoms of hydrogen on the reactant side, we need to place a coefficient of five with the water compound on the product side. Now, we need to balance the oxygen on both sides. When one element substitutes another element in a compound, the reaction is a single replacement reaction also called single displacement reaction.
In this type of reaction, the reactants will always be a pure element and a compound. Since C does not participate in the reaction, trading products on binary compound decomposes is called the spectator ion. As the name suggests, C can be an element or an ion. The activity series of metals limits the possibility of some reactions.
The activity series is a guide for the reactivity of elements, and helps you predict the products of replacement reactions. The table below shows the activity series of metals and halogens. The elements higher in the table are more reactive than the elements below them. More reactive elements can replace less reactive elements in a reaction.
For example, calcium can replace magnesium, but not potassium, in a reaction. The rule also applies to halogens. The metals we need to compare are silver and copper. Checking the activity series table, copper is higher compared to silver, which means that copper is more reactive than silver.
Copper will replace silver and the reaction is possible. Considering the reaction between zinc Zn and hydrochloric acid HClthe chlorine ion is the spectator ion. The table shows that zinc is more reactive than hydrogen.
The reaction can occur, and zinc will replace hydrogen. The balanced reaction is given as. As we can see from the table above, bromine is located below chlorine, which means that it is less reactive than chlorine. This indicates that the reaction is not possible. With the reaction of chlorine gas and magnesium iodide, magnesium is the spectator ion. We need to compare chlorine and iodine on the halogen activity series.
Chlorine is higher and therefore, it can trading products on binary compound decomposes iodine. The balanced reaction is shown below. Consider trading products on binary compound decomposes reaction of iron and magnesium sulfate.
This means that the reaction is not possible. The last classification for chemical reactions is the double replacement reaction. Put simply, the ions involved in this type of reaction change places to form two new compounds as products.
This type of chemical reaction is also called metathesis. Switching the pairings of cations and anions will form two new compounds, AD and BC. There are two types of double replacement reactions: Precipitation reactions involve two aqueous compounds that form a solid precipitate and a trading products on binary compound decomposes aqueous compound as the products. Meanwhile, neutralization reactions concern reactions between acids and bases. If one of the reactants involved in a neutralization reaction is water, one of the products is a salt.
To know whether one of the products is a precipitate, we need to use the solubility guidelines. The solubility guidelines are a set of rules that state whether a pair of ions trading products on binary compound decomposes soluble in water or not. If the compound is soluble, then it will not form a precipitate. The solubility rules are as follows:. In the addition of hydrochloric acid to silver nitrate, the cations are silver and potassium while the anions are nitrate and chlorine.
Both sets of ions will trading products on binary compound decomposes forming two new compounds: Silver chloride is a white solid precipitate which indicates that this reaction is a precipitation reaction.